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The Mordellian Constitution

Speech Issuing the Constitution

My people, I stand before you today to complete the quest we have been on for several years, the quest to free our great nation from oppression. This is the final chapter, and the final absolute authority that needs to be dismissed that our great nation shall again be guided and governed by a rule of law. That final supreme authority is my own. Nine months ago, we together, united, fought the vile oppressors who had invaded out nation. We had made our preparations in secret without our oppressors knowing, and planned carefully our time to strike. When the time came, all across this country we set upon our captors, struck down their organisation, and threw them from our country once and, we hope, for eternity. We did this together, not without losses or pains. I stood with you, I bled with you and all of us sacrificed to achieve our freedom for oppression. When the smoke of battle finally cleared, I alone stood with Lord William to manage and govern the Nation, a task we undertook with vigour and enthusiasm to return to our fellow citizens the normalities of civilisation, a task that we feel we have excelled at. But in recent times calls have been made upon those of us who currently govern to remain in power as sole authorities. They claim that, as our people have spent such time under the rule of autocrats, now that is all they recognise. Still others attempt flattery to try to impress that those in power are best for the position and should remain in such absolute authority. But a constitution is not for today’s people, or for this generation. It is a document to govern and manage for years to come, for as long as this nation may endure and thrive. We who currently govern may be benevolent and rule with the consent of the people, but time may come when a less worthy sovereign rule these lands. Therefore, by the power vested in me, by the authority of the Army I lead and the right of conquest, I hereby issue this Constitution as the final act of my absolute monarchy. I do this in the interest of freeing the people of Mordellia from the oppression they have felt previously, and formally accept the limitations included upon the executive invested in me. «It was at this time that the King sat at a table and signed several documents in a large pile of paper. The press multitude took its photographs. The time was 12:01pm, on 5 October, 2014» I will not read to you now the full text of the Constitution, others shall have that privilege, but I wish to point out some aspects. Firstly, within the Statement of Liberties are enumerated the rights of the individual to be protected, both from government interference and from the perils that naturally befall civilised peoples. Governments have the authority to make laws that protect peoples from poverty and sickness, and I will ensure they do so. Secondly, the executive’s authority within this constitution is heavily limited, but it has an aspect that I assure you will have much usage. While the King cannot reign by fiat, it can interpret laws, and, I assure you, I will be doing that! I will interpret laws and this constitution in such ways that the people are protected, and never again subjected to the poverty and enslavement that we have previously experience. Thirdly, the executive has the authority, as it does in many other places, to reject or return laws that do not work in the best interest of its people. I shall not, and expect my successors to likewise, simply stand by while laws are passed that do harm to my people. Parliaments are to be called up by the Executive, and a parliament that does ill to the people shall not last long. To offer a proof of my intention for representation, one of the documents I have just penned includes a writ of election which will be formally proclaimed shortly after the Constitution is read. The elections will take place six-weeks from today. The constitution stipulates that I am to describe the procedure for the first meeting of this parliament, which will be published within the next week, and I expect this parliament to convene on 1 December of this year, which will also serve as coronation day. I shall add one final point, which will seem to be redundant, but is required. The Constitution gives specific rights to the States that, as a result of the recent upheaval, are now somewhat less clearly demarcated. We have taken strains to prepare a map that will be published this afternoon, which few will have cause for be upset by. For now, I will innumerate that the 12 states will be Albia, Caledonai, Frankian Napleton, Anchentia, Romantia, Industrealateria, Fantasias, Figburry, Pynto-plain, Scaleningham, the Protectorate of the Lost and the City-State of Representitia. Again, this should be no surprise to anyone. Now the Constitution shall be read and the writs of election established. In the absence of a governing legislature, I will issue proclamations in accordance with the constitution to keep order. I am working on preparing a Law Code and other documents to present to the parliament for their consideration. Until then, I thank you for taking the time to join me in this historic moment in the reconstruction of our Nation.

Preamble Recognising that nations require organised government for the proper exercise of law and order, and that the recent overthrow of those who spent several years oppressing the people of the twelve states of Mordellia has been achieved by a glorious military dictatorship which, in these modern times, does not give proper respect to its citizens, I, Michael George Decal, at present commander of all forces in Mordellia and military dictator do, by the right of conquest through our recent liberation, hereby issue the following articles constituting the new Mordellian Nation. The Constitution Article 1 - Separation of Powers Clause 1 - Organisation The Governance of Mordellia shall be organised by four, separate entities, namely; The Monarch, The Parliament, The Meritocratic Assembly and The Supreme Court. Clause 2 – Conflict of Interest A person may only be elected to, or hold tenure in, one branch of Government at any one time. Should a person be called upon to serve another branch, except for military service, that person must either resign, or recuse themselves from all rights, privileges and responsibilities. In either case, they may not take up any position with the same branch within one year of their resignation or recusal. This separation shall extend to membership of the Parliament chambers, restricting that no citizen shall be entitled to hold office in both concurrently. Clause 3 - Eligibility No person who shall have been convicted of Treason or any other federal crime shall hold office in any part of the governance of Mordellia. This shall include membership of positions which require virtuous conduct. Neither shall any person be eligible for election who is not a Mordellian citizen, under term of service to the state or other lord, under the age of twenty-one or an undischarged bankrupt or insolvent. This shall not extend to pensions due to citizen for services rendered, for which no further service is expected. No citizen shall be eligible for service within the Legislative or Judicial branches who is younger than twenty-one years or who is older than seventy years, except for Military service. Clause 4 - Salary An appropriate salary shall be determined by legislation to be paid for service to the Government. The amount shall be apportioned the same rate for; the Monarch, the Head of the Legislative Assembly, the Head of the Diet of Tolerance, the Chief Judge on the Supreme Court, the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Speaker of the Diet of Tolerance. Clause 5 – Supreme Authority, Oaths and Religious Tests This Constitution shall be the supreme authority within the realm of Mordellia, and no law, statute, proclamation or dictate shall overrule or amend it except by the method included herein. All persons who serve the government shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust. Article 2 - Executive Clause 1 - Authority All executive authority shall be invested in the Monarch alone. The Monarch may act on, or contrary to, advice delivered by any individual or organisation. The Monarch may request the opinion from any individual, organisation or Government Department that may be deemed expedient on their service and conduct, handling of matters or any other matter. All powers of national importance not specifically enumerated within this constitution as being managed by another body shall be the responsibility of the executive until Legislation shall determine. Clause 2 - Succession At the time of adoption of this constitution, the Monarch shall be the person of Michael George Decal, and shall subsequently be passed to his legal heirs. Should the lawful Monarch be declared incapacitated by a two-thirds majority vote of the Meritocratic Assembly, the next legal heir in the line of succession shall be named as regent until the incapacity shall have passed. In such case, the Monarch and all members of the Executive Council shall issue individual statements to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, declaring that the Monarch is again able to act as the Executive. In the event of the throne being inherited by a person under the age of eighteen, the Executive Council, chaired by the Monarch shall exercise executive power until the Monarch achieves the age of eighteen. Clause 3 – Executive Council The Monarch shall be advised by an Executive Council, consisting of: - The Head of the Legislative Assembly, - The Head of the Diet of Tolerance, - The Chair of the Meritocratic Assembly, - The Chief Judge on the Supreme Court, - The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, - The Speaker of the Diet of Tolerance, - The managers of such departments as Parliament may deem necessary to define, and any such other persons as the Monarch shall deem necessary for his advice. Members of the Executive Council shall not be paid a salary for their service to this council, but other bodies may choose to fund their expenses of membership. Clause 4 – Armed Forces, Reprieves and Pardons The Monarch shall be the head of all armed forces, be they police, military or militia. The Monarch shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against Mordellia, except in matters determined through Impeachment. Clause 5 – Treaties and Foreign Agreements The Monarch shall have the authority to negotiate and sign treaties and agreements with foreign powers. Such agreements shall only thence become law when ratified by an affirmative vote of both parliamentary chambers, at a two-thirds majority. Clause 6 – Ambassadors and Supreme Court Appointments After consultation of the Executive Council, the Monarch shall have the authority to appoint ambassadors and plenipotentiaries to foreign nations. The Monarch shall have sole authority to appoint the members of the Meritocratic Assembly. The Monarch shall also have the authority, ratified by an affirmative, two-thirds majority vote of both parliamentary chambers, to appoint the members of the Supreme Court. Clause 7 – Command and Election of Parliament The Monarch shall have sole authority to command the sitting of a Parliament through the issuance of writs commanding elections at any time deemed expedient, however no more than five years shall pass between the issuance of writs. The Monarch shall not have a vote or voice during debate in the Parliament but may chair all meetings personally or represented by a Speaker in each chamber elected by the members in a manner decided by that chamber. At the time of convening a parliament sitting, the Monarch shall make known to the Parliament such matters as he deems necessary for their consideration. When presenting legislation to the parliament, the Monarch may explain or deliver to the Speaker such notes as he deems necessary for the explanation of the rationale for such legislation. Clause 8 – Guards The Monarch and those who serve him within the Executive shall be protected by a guard of troops separate from the defence force of the nation. This guard shall not exceed one tenth the size of the force of national defence and may be distributed around the nation as the Monarch shall deem necessary. All its members shall be appointed by the Monarch and shall be members of the Meritocratic Assembly in their own right and separate from membership of this guard. Article 3 - The Parliament The Parliament shall consider matters of public importance and pass laws or regulations for the good order and governance of society. The Parliament shall consist of 2 chambers, namely; The Legislative Assembly and The Diet of Tolerance. Disputes between these chambers shall be adjudicated by the Meritocratic Assembly as described below. Clause 1 – Meetings The Parliament shall assemble at least twice in each year, and shall determine by legislation, their own manner of assembly, with the exception of the first meeting that shall be determined by the Monarch. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly conduct, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member for a time not exceeding twenty-four hours. Except with the agreement of the other house and the Monarch, both houses shall meet in separate chambers of the same place. Clause 2 - Membership Section A – The Legislative Assembly The Legislative Assembly shall consist of representatives chosen by the issuance of writs as described in a previous manner; Article 2, Clause 7. Each member shall represent a population no less than fifty thousand citizens and no more than seventy thousand citizens. Eligible persons shall be those who are no less than twenty-five years of age and no older than seventy years, and shall be citizens of no less than seven years. They also shall reside in the area which they are to represent. The Meritocratic Assembly shall determine the location and size of areas of representation, using the statistics gathered by the undertaking of a regular census at intervals no more than ten years. When vacancies to the Legislative Assembly shall arise, the Monarch may issue writs to fill such vacancies or may appoint the previous representative. Should the previous be unavailable or inappropriate, and the time of the next election too short for a new election to be prudent, the Monarch shall issue a writ to replace that vacancy with that election being counted toward the next election of the full legislative assembly. Section B – The Diet of Tolerance The Diet of Tolerance shall consist of five members from each state within the Nation appointed by the states leadership as they may decide. Parliament may legislate the increase of this body such that it does not become unwieldly. It shall be at the discretion of the states to their manner of appointment, be it by fiat or election. Similarly, the states shall fill any vacancies that may arise in a manner they may determine appropriate. Clause 3 – Recording of Meetings Each chamber shall record the proceedings of meetings, both of the main chamber and any committees that may be so required. The vote of each member upon every question, including their abstention as necessary, shall also be recorded. A publication of each day’s proceedings shall be made of all matters and all votes. Sections of the days proceedings which that chamber may consider necessary to keep secret may be done so by a two-thirds affirmative vote approved by the Monarch except when the full parliament may, by legislation, determine that the matter be kept secret. Such information shall be protected for no more than twenty-five years. The text of all legislation presented to the Parliament shall be made available to the public no less than one day before a vote is scheduled. The text of all legislation approved by both chambers shall be made available to the public no less than one day before it is presented to the Monarch. Clause 4 – Budgetary Legislation When considering matters concerning the raising of revenues or levying of taxes, or of the distribution of monies, such matters shall be presented in the Legislative Assembly and, if passed in the affirmative, shall then be passed to the Diet of Tolerance. If that chamber approves, it shall then be passed to the Monarch for his approval or to be returned to the Legislative Assembly for reconsideration. All funds shall be held in one place by the treasury. No monies shall be drawn from the treasury except by this procedure, and any person doing so shall be immediately tried or impeached for Treason. Mordellia shall have a standing defence force as defined by Parliament that shall generally be funded for terms no longer than two years. Specific projects may be funded for any term less than twenty-five years such as the Meritocratic Assembly shall recommend to the Parliament. The Parliament shall be empowered to approve or reject levies and taxes the states may deem necessary. No duty on goods exchanged between the states is to be approved, the states being empowered to trade amongst themselves freely. Clause 5 – Other Legislation and Veto Each chamber shall determine its own procedures for the passing of legislation. When both chambers have, separately, agreed and approved the text of a piece of legislation it shall be then passed to the Monarch for his signature and seal or, should he choose, he may return the text to the Legislative Assembly with his comments for its reconsideration. They may then approve, alter or reject those changes as they see fit before passing them on to the Diet of Tolerance for their consideration. When, again a text has been agreed upon, they shall then pass it on to the Monarch for his signature or rejection. Except for impeachments, all matters considered by both chambers shall be passed to the Monarch before it takes effect. The Monarch, Judiciary or Meritocratic Assembly may submit questions for consideration as legislation, to be presented by the Speaker or Monarch in person. Such legislation shall be considered by the Parliament in the same manner as if presented by a member in whatever regular procedure the chamber shall ascribe. When presented by the above listed, it shall be considered by both chambers concurrently. Clause 6 – The Powers of Parliament Parliament shall be empowered to define and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, and to borrow moneys and pay Debts against the credit of Mordellia. No duties or excises shall be laid upon the trade between states. It shall regulate proper business practises and the commerce both within Mordellia and with foreign states as regards to individuals, corporations and all other groups. Parliament shall regulate the production and value of currency, and fix Standard of Weights and Measures. It shall regulate the issuance of credit within the nation and the mechanisms for the forfeiture of debts and bankruptcies. Parliament shall establish a clear and concise legal code, with specific punishments for crime that the Judiciary shall refer to. Further it shall define those courts and tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court Parliament shall be responsible for the establishment of such services as deemed expedient for the common defence and general welfare of all citizens and persons residing with the Nation. Parliament shall have the authority to declare war and peace with foreign nations, and ratify agreements to such effect as forwarded to it by the Monarch. All these shall be uniform across all states and citizens. No ex post facto legislation shall be considered either nationally or within any state. Article 4 - The Judiciary Clause 1 – Supreme Court The Judicial Authority of Mordellia shall be vested in one Supreme Court, of 9 members, and in such inferior Courts as the Parliament may ordain and establish. Clause 2 - Jurisdiction In the event of misconduct by Ambassadors, Public officials, and in all cases where a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all other situations, the Supreme Court shall act as the final court of appeal. Parliament may establish such other appellate or judicial courts as it deems necessary, at which time the authority for administering such courts is transferred to the Supreme Court. Parliament may not legislate any restriction upon appeal to the Supreme Court, except for nominating tribunals and other appellate courts that shall hear the case preceding the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall consider such judgments, but is empowered to accept or overturn them as it deems appropriate. Clause 3 – Trial by Jury The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment or above stated, shall be by Jury. Such trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Parliament may by law have directed. Article 5 - The Meritocratic Assembly The Meritocratic Assembly shall promote the innovation and progress of Science and useful Arts, and shall serve as a storehouse of living knowledge for Mordellia. It shall be a body set apart from the Parliament with its members recognised for their service and ability such that they may be best placed to interpret regulation and decide questions of national importance before their being legislated. All titles of nobility that precede the issuance of this Constitution are hereby nullified. Clause 1 – Membership The Meritocratic Assembly shall consist of all those whom it may please the Monarch, in gratitude of a life of service, to appoint to such noble titles by letters patent. The Monarch may consider suggestions presented to the Executive Council by other government bodies or the states, but no title of nobility shall be legal except that it be issued by the Monarch through letters patent. Except when approved by the Parliament and extant members of the Meritocratic Assembly, such members shall not be younger than sixty years. Such noble titles shall exist only for the term of the life of the recipient Such noble titles shall include a specific parcel of land, ten percent of the taxation regularly levied by Parliament of which shall serve as a salary to the title-holder. Clause 2 – Meetings The Meritocratic Assembly shall assemble at least twice in each year, and shall determine by mutual agreement their own manner of assembly, with the exception of the first meeting that shall be determined by the Monarch. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly conduct, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member for a time not exceeding twenty-four hours. Clause 3 – National Questions The Meritocratic Assembly shall consult and resolve questions of national importance or disputes about the interpretation and purpose of legislation. Such decisions shall be presented to the Monarch for his ratification as dictates under Article 7, Clause 1. Clause 4 – Oversite and appeal The Meritocratic Assembly is empowered to observe that the regulations and legislation described by Parliament is being properly implemented and respected, except in such matters that the Monarch may deem more appropriate to be investigated by a paramilitary police force. It shall be a body to which any person or group may have cause shall appeal for its determination on questions of national importance. The resolution of matters shall be through the Judiciary or by presenting such resolutions to the Parliament as it may deem most appropriate. Clause 5 – National Resources The Monarch may issue title or charter to institutions to manage the natural resources of the Nation. These shall be subject to legislation, regulation and taxation as the Parliament shall decide, and shall not be awarded the remuneration from taxation explained in the previous clause. These institutions shall each hold only one vote within the Meritocratic Assembly, and shall be represented by the institution’s executive when assembled. Clause 6 - National Bank The Meritocratic Assembly shall make appointments to, and administer, a central bank that shall raise monies and produce currency as Parliament shall determine. Such appointments shall not be members of government, or entitled to serve in government for twelve months after their tenure is concluded. Clause 7 – Guards Members of the Meritocratic Assembly appointed to the Executive Guard shall serve for terms no longer than three years with no less than one year separating terms of service. Clause 8 – Preceding Titles Any title of nobility in existence within the Mordellian Borders that precedes this constitution shall henceforth be nullified and shall cease to exist. Such titles may, at the pleasure of the Monarch, be utilised in future but shall hold no precedence over other titles except as the Monarch may define. Clause 9 – Empowerment The Parliament may, as it so chooses, ascribe to the Meritocratic Assembly such powers as may be necessary to accomplish tasks that Legislation may require. Such powers shall, from that time forward, be no longer answerable to the parliament but to the Meritocratic Assembly, subject to impeachment or whatever administration as that body may require. Article 6 – Amendments The procedure to amend this constitution shall be by the Meritocratic Assembly approving, by a simple majority, a proposed amendment to the Parliament. Each house shall thence approve it by a two-thirds majority before passing it to the Monarch. He shall thence issue a writ of Referendum at which a public vote of all citizens eligible to vote shall be held. If the majority of citizens in the majority of states approves of the amendment, the Monarch shall certify those results and sign the amendment, at which time it becomes law, or at any other time stated therein. Article 7 – Proclamations and Dictates Clause 1 – Proclamations and Dictates The Monarch shall have the authority, in all times, to issue proclamations that shall be law, but shall in no way have an effect lasting longer than 24hours, except when the Parliament declares a time of war. In such case they shall last as long as is required for the prosecution of the war, or until the Parliament determines is expedient. The Monarch shall have the authority to issue dictates interpreting how legislation passed by Parliament shall be enacted. Such dictates shall have the same force of law as the original legislation, but may not replace that legislation. Parliament may repeal and replace such dictates by legislation. The Monarch shall, by proclamation, have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses, except in cases of impeachment. Clause 2 – Emergencies The Monarch shall have the authority to make any proclamation for 48hours if it is stated to be a time of emergency. Such proclamation must include the assembly of both chambers of the Parliament, no later than 72hours from the moment the proclamation is issued, at which the Monarch shall call for a vote ratifying the measures taken in the proclamation by an affirmative, two-thirds majority vote. If the parliament, in its deliberations, does not ratify the proclamation, the vote that rejects such ratification shall serve as an affirmative vote of impeachment against the Monarch who, from the moment the Speaker certifies the results, shall be impeached and the Monarch’s lawful heir shall take the throne as regent until Impeachment proceedings can be completed. The Monarch shall not be permitted to chair the proceedings of ratifying emergency measures, and the Speaker shall not accept direction from the Monarch on such proceedings. Clause 3 – Limiting Executive Proclamations Parliament shall have the authority to ratify or annul any proclamation or dictate by legislation. Article 8 – The States The states shall be governed with the consent of the people and may define their own constitutions to accomplish that organisation. Such constitution shall establish the Monarch of Mordellia as its executive, represented, in the Monarch’s absence, by a person defined by that state’s constitution and appointed by the Monarch. The Monarch and Legislature shall equally deal with the States, with none having precedence over any other. Clause 1 – Respect of Proceedings Full faith and credit shall be given within each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. Legal contracts and agreements made within one state shall be respected in all other states. Parliament may, by legislation, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. Furthermore, A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. Clause 2 – State Militia Each state shall raise and manage a militia force of no more than one-fifth the size of the standing National army, to defend the state in times of invasion or national strife. As described above, the Monarch shall be the supreme commander of these militia forces. Such forces may be utilised in times of national emergency or disaster to assist as deemed necessary by the State. The National Government of Mordellia shall by legislation, and the Monarch shall through martial strength, protect the states from invasion or domestic violence. The Militia of the individual states shall not be used to invade another state, but may be permitted to assist within another state’s borders in times of need. Clause 3 - Restrictions No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation separate to those ascribed by the Legislature or this Constitution. No state will enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation with any foreign power separate from the Nation. In all matters, the national Parliament shall take precedence over the states and legislation of the Parliament shall overrule that of the states. The Supreme Court shall judge all disputes amongst the states or between the states and the nation. The Meritocratic Assembly being empowered to define the currency and method of financial exchange, no state shall coin or borrow Money, issue Bills of Credit or define any exchange other than defined by the Meritocratic Assembly for the trade within the state or amongst the states. States may issue municipal bonds to raise funds as they deem necessary but shall be alone responsible for their service. Clause 4 - New States When it may be deemed necessary by the Meritocratic Assembly for new states to be formed from amongst the existing, or to add new lands to the nation, they shall present a proposal to the governing bodies of any states impacted by the change along with their reasoning. If those bodies approve of the measure, the proposal shall be put to the Parliament and then the people in the manner described in Article 6. Article 9 – Impeachment In cases where a member of the Government, that is; the Monarch, a member of the Parliament, a member of the Supreme Court or a member of the Meritocratic Assembly, is suspected of Treason, Bribery, or other crime against the state as the Parliament may determine is grave enough to warrant, shall be impeached and tried for that crime. Impeachment alone shall be the judicial recourse against members of the government, and government members shall be protected for arrest or questioning by other bodies during their time of service or regarding their time of service. An affirmative, two-thirds majority vote by the full parliament is required for a person to be impeached and such shall not require the approval of the Monarch. Until such time the person shall be entitled to remain in their position and operate whatever office they hold. If the Monarch is impeached, their next lawful heir shall act as regent until the case is completed. When a member of the Parliament is accused, they shall be entitled to speak in their own defence during debate, but shall be barred from voting in the decision of impeachment. If the impeached is a member of the Supreme Court, that person shall be temporarily removed from their position until the judgement is determined. The full bench of the Supreme Court shall judge the case and determine procedure as a Tribunal of Impeachment. Representatives of the Parliament shall act as prosecutors and representatives from the Meritocratic Assembly shall operate as defenders, unless the impeached chooses to engage other persons for their defence, as approved by the Tribunal. If the Tribunal determines a guilty verdict, they shall have the authority to impose whatever reasonable penalty or fine as they may determine appropriate. Regardless of penalties imposed, the guilty person shall, from the moment the judgment is certified, shall cease to hold any position in Government and shall be prevented from holding any office of honour for the remainder of their life. The decision of the Tribunal may be appealed to the Executive Council, except if the former Monarch shall be the impeached, in which case the Parliament shall be the appellate. In either case, the decision may only be reprieved or pardoned by a unanimous, affirmative, vote. Article 10 Until defined by Legislation or Referendum, the powers and restrictions not mentioned in this Constitution shall be delegated to the states, except for matters that concern multiple states which shall be administered by the Executive. Statement of Liberties Article 1 – Definition and rights of Citizens A citizen of shall be any person born within the borders of Mordellia to biological parents, at least one of whom is also a citizen, or any person who shall be offered citizenship by a vote of the Executive council. Such persons must renounce all allegiances and titles in all other nations or states. No person shall be entitled to citizenship that is also a citizen of, or holds or titles within, another nation or state and no citizen of Mordellia shall be entitled to accept titles or notes of merit from another nation or state except when specifically legislated by Parliament. All citizens in their majority shall be entitled and required to vote in all matters that the Monarch shall issue writs for, except for those citizens incarcerated or under terms of service as appointed by a judicial instrument. Parliament may define the age of majority. All citizens of Mordellia shall also belong to one of its constituent states, and shall be responsible to the laws and statues made by the government of that state. All citizens shall have the freedom to, at their leisure, reside in whatever state they choose and no state shall restrict freedom of movement of persons, except by the due process of law. At no time shall the sex, race, culture, religious creed or any other such factor be considered in the evaluation of a citizen to do civic duty or service. Nor shall employment or services be denied to any citizen owing to these factors. Such activity is treason against the values of Mordellia. Article 2 - Freedom of Expression Where it is not injurious to the physical safety and security of persons or groups, the Government will not restrict the freedom of expression, or the freedom to publish. Further, the free exercise of religion will not be restricted and no religious test shall be put upon any individual for service to the public. The right of the people to assemble peacefully will not be restricted, nor will the right to petition the government be restricted, except where such petition is treasonous, seditious or potentially injurious to the physical safety or security of persons or groups. Article 3 – Right to trial When proper evidence is found by the nation to present charges before a court of law against any person, such court shall be overseen by an impartial member of the Judiciary and the matter decided by an impartial jury of peers. Such trial shall be expedient and public. The defendant shall be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, and given timely opportunity to prepare a proper defence with the assistance of counsel. The Defendant shall be entitled to confront the accusers in a just setting, and to compel witnesses and produce evidence in their favour. All persons have the right to forfeit the jury and have the matter heard by Judge alone, or by a jury of experts on the matters in question. Such experts shall be drawn from the Meritocratic Assembly. Such judgements may not be appealed on the grounds of a lack of Jury. No person shall be compelled to testify against themselves or spouse. Neither shall any forceful measures be used to compel testimony. Except when accused treasonous conduct, or when the accused may be a threat to good order or the safety of persons in the state, the setting of bail shall not be denied, and the amount required must note be excessive. No person shall be put to trial for the same offence more than once, except in cases where a member of the Supreme Court determines that such new evidence has been discovered that the case warrants review. Punishments for those deemed guilty must be appropriate, as defined by legislation. The Meritocratic Assembly shall determine if any legislated punishment is excessive, cruel or unusual and may define substitute penalties until such time as more appropriate legislation can be agreed. Article 4 – Individual Liberties In order that the liberties of the individual are protected, no legislation shall infringe upon the following rights, but shall legislate to protect them; Clause 1 The right to a good, education and to proper instruction before undertaking employment Clause 2 The right to proper compensation for seizure of government property, except as penalty for crime. Clause 3 The right to be secure in one’s person, house, papers, and effects against unlawful search and seizure. Proper warrants may be issued by the Judiciary upon the determination of Probable Cause, but shall specifically detail the persons, places or things to be searched and seized. Further, the right of Habeas Corpus is protected. Clause 4 The right of every business, large and small, and of every businessperson, and of every farmer, to trade in an atmosphere of freedom from unfair competition and domination by monopolies. Clause 5 The right to a useful and remunerative job, sufficient to provide adequate food, clothing and recreation, and for every family to a decent home. Clause 6 The right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health as far as science shall allow. Clause 7 The right to adequate protection from the economic fears of old age, sickness, accident, and unemployment. Article 6 – Further Rights The stipulations within the Declaration of Rights do not constitute an exhaustive list, and the people, as directed by Referendum, can add to or remove from these Rights as their society sees fit.